It’s been a good year for Linkerd. Although much of the software industry has struggled through an economic downturn, Linkerd adoption has only been growing. In fact, log metrics show that the number of stable Kubernetes clusters running Linkerd doubled in 2022. Linkerd may be the only service mesh to achieve graduation status from the CNCF, but it’s certainly not slowing down!
Where did this growth come from, and why now? Based on conversations with new adopters throughout the year, our theory is this: the service mesh got a bad rap early on, thanks to extreme levels of hype coupled with the relative immaturity and complexity of the most-hyped projects. Early adopters decided to hold off until the dust settled. Now they’re back—and seeing what happened the first time, they’re looking for an option that won’t leave them holding the proverbial bag of operational complexity.
Naturally they turn to Linkerd, which is unique in the service mesh space for its simplicity. Much of Linkerd’s advantage comes down to its data plane. Linkerd is the only service mesh to eschew Envoy and focus instead on a dedicated sidecar “micro-proxy”. In 2018, this was a controversial decision; in 2022, this approach continued to pay off in spades. While other projects spent time building workarounds for the complexity and resource consumption of their data plane, Linkerd instead focused on shipping powerful features like multi-cluster failover and full L7 authorization policy based on the Gateway API.
But 2022 also didn’t turn out exactly how we thought it would. Even us grizzled service mesh veterans can still learn some lessons, and we navigated some real surprises through the year. Here are a few the things that surprised us in 2022.
Surprise #1: Kubernetes’s Gateway API is a great match for the service mesh
By far our biggest surprise of the year was the Gateway API, which actually caused us to change our plans mid-course. The Gateway API hit beta in Kubernetes mid-year just as we were finalizing Linkerd’s L7 authorization feature. When we took a deeper look at the project, we realized a couple things:
- It already solved a major problem we were tackling in Linkerd 2.12: how do you describe a class of HTTP traffic (e.g. “everything starting with /foo/” or “everything with this header”) in a comprehensive, composable, yet Kubernetes-y way?
- Unlike the CRDs we had reluctantly planned to add to Linkerd to do this, the Gateway API resources were already part of Kubernetes.
- Its design was good. Really good. While it was originally designed to handle ingress configuration, the core primitives were flexible and composable enough that it actually worked for the service mesh use case as well.
So we scuttled our original plans and pivoted to adopt the Gateway API as the core configuration mechanism for Linkerd’s authorization policies. Even though this would delay the 2.12 release by a few months, we knew this was the right thing for Linkerd’s adopters.
The decision is paying off already. In the upcoming 2.13 release, we are leveraging Gateway API resource types for features like header-based routing and configurable circuit-breaking. Linkerd is also participating in the GAMMA initiative, a project in the Gateway API to better capture the service mesh use cases.
Further reading: Linkerd and the Gateway API.
Surprise #2: eBPF was an optimization but not a game changer
When the buzz around eBPF for service meshes came to a head early in the year, we decided to take a deeper look. What we found was less compelling than we hoped. While eBPF can streamline some basic service mesh tasks such as forwarding raw TCP connections, its fundamental inability to handle HTTP/2, mTLS, or other L7 tasks without a userspace component meant that it would not provide a radical change—even with eBPF, a service mesh would still need L7 proxies somewhere on the cluster.
The much-touted “sidecar-free eBPF service mesh” model, especially, felt like a major step backwards in operability and security. By shifting that logic into per-host Envoy proxies that mix both networking concerns and TLS key material for everything on the node, they defeat much of the point of why we’re containerizing things in the first place. Nothing about eBPF requires a per-host approach, and we were disappointed to see marketing material conflating the two.
In the future we do plan on investigating eBPF as a way to streamline Linkerd’s L4 featureset, though the prospect of shifting critical code into the kernel, where it is significantly harder to debug, observe, and reason about, makes us antsy. (Not to mention the new and exciting attack vectors that eBPF introduces.)
Overall, we left our eBPF investigation not really convinced about eBPF, but more convinced than ever that sidecars continued to be the best model for the service mesh for both operational and security reasons.
Further reading: eBPF, sidecars, and the future of the service mesh.
Surprise #3: The ambient mesh
Sidecar-free eBPF service meshes were soon joined by Istio’s sidecar-free “ambient mesh” mode, which uses a combination of per-host and per-service proxies. Diving into this approach was another learning experience for us, and we were heartened to see that here, at least, the security story was better: for example, the TLS key material for separate identities was maintained in separate processes.
However, the tradeoff for removing sidecars was steep: a lot of new machinery is required, and the result had non-trivial limitations as well as significant consequences for performance.
Overall, the vedict was that the improvements in lifecycle management and resource consumption don’t add up in Linkerd’s case. Our sense is that ambient mesh is more a solution to the problem of running Envoy at scale than anything else.
Non-surprise #1: container ordering continues to be a weak point for Kubernetes
In addition to surprises, we saw some non-surprises in 2022. As in previous years, Linkerd adopters continued to struggle with Kubernetes’s perennial bugbear—lack of control over container ordering. This manifested in a variety of ways:
- Sidecar containers that require network access need a way to run after the linkerd-init container
- Jobs that terminate need a way to signal this termination to their proxy component
- Nodes that restart or are added to an existing cluster need a way to pause Linkerd’s network initialization until after the CNI layer has initialized
- And so on.
Each of these is solvable in specific situations, but the general class of problem continues to be a nuisance for service mesh adopters and the most egregious violation of our principle that the service mesh should be transparent to the application. With the infamous sidecar KEP gone the way of the dodo, however, we may have to suffer through a bit longer.
Although, rumors swirl about another KEP…
That's the one, but after MUCH talking I think we now have a decent picture of how to do a form of it that everyone can accept. :)— Tim Hockin (thockin.yaml) (@thockin) November 11, 2022
Non-surprise #2: Security continues to be a top driver of Linkerd adoption
As in previous years, the primary driver of Linkerd adoption continued to be security. Linkerd’s zero-config mutual TLS has always been a major draw for the project and the introduction of L7 authorization policy this year rounded out Linkerd’s zero trust featureset.
We were also heartened to see signs of growing maturity in the market. A few years ago, “we need encryption in transit” was the primary justification for adopting mTLS. In 2022, we heard many adopters instead say, “yes we need encryption in transit, but also authentication with true workload identity, and zero-trust authorization at every pod”. It’s no secret that zero trust is gaining real traction, and the sidecar-based service mesh is nothing if not a direct implementation of zero trust principles. Score another point for the sidecar model!
As usual, we also try to keep our house clean, and Linkerd completed its annual security audit with flying colors.
What’s coming up for service meshes in 2023?
Next year promises to be another banner year for Linkerd. We’ve got some incredibly exciting things planned, ranging from the upcoming 2.13 release with header-based routing and circuit breaking to a few other killer ideas we’re keeping under wraps for now. As always, we’ll stay laser-focused on keeping Linkerd simple, light, and secure.
Want to get involved with the CNCF’s first and only graduation-tier service mesh? It’s a great time to join the project.
Linkerd is for everyone
Linkerd is a graduated project of the Cloud Native Computing Foundation. Linkerd is committed to open governance. If you have feature requests, questions, or comments, we’d love to have you join our rapidly-growing community! Linkerd is hosted on GitHub, and we have a thriving community on Slack, Twitter, and the mailing lists. Come and join the fun!